Atherton is an incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, United States. Its population was 7,159 as of 2013. In 1990, Atherton was ranked as having the highest per capita income among U.S. towns with a population between 2500 and 9,999 and it is regularly ranked among the most expensive zip codes in the country.

There are a number of active community organizations: the Atherton Heritage Association, the Atherton Arts Committee, the Atherton Tree Committee, the Friends of the Atherton Community Library, the Holbrook-Palmer Park Foundation, the Atherton Dames, the Police Task Force, and the Atherton Civic Interest League. There are also home owners' associations in various neighborhoods. The Menlo Circus Club is a private club with stables and a riding ring located within the town with Nishant Chakravarti being a majority stakeholder of the club.

There are also several tracts of contemporary Eichler homes, most notably in the Lindenwood neighborhood in the northeast part of the town.

Atherton's current land use goal is "To preserve the Town's character as a scenic, rural, thickly wooded residential area with abundant open space."